Non-Destructive Evaluation Methods, LPI, MPE, UT & Radiography at Sanray Laboratories Pvt Ltd

10 November 2018

By Admin


Non–Destructive Evaluation (NDE) is used to determine various activities within the field, comprising –

  • Defect Location
  • Estimation of Mechanical & Physical Properties
  • Flaw Detection and Evaluation
  • Leak Detection and Evaluation
  • Metrology Measurement of Dimensions
  • Stress Determination
  • Structural Determination

Liquid Penetrant Inspection (LPI))

LPI is a non-destructive method of revealing discontinuities that are open to the surface of solid and essentially Non-Porous Materials. Indications of wide spectrum of flow sizes can be found regardless of the configuration of theworkplace regardless of flow orientation.
LPI depends mainly a Penetrant effectively wetting the surface of a solid workpieces or specimen.

Types of Fluorescent Penetrant

The penetrants can be classified into:

  • Level ½: Ultra Low
  • Level 1: Low
  • Level 2: Medium
  • Level 3: High
  • Level 4: Ultra High

Products that can be Tested

  • Casting
  • Ceramics
  • Extrusions
  • Forgings
  • P/M parts

Types of Industries

  • Fabrication Industries
  • Welding Industries
  • Casting Industries
  • Forging Industries
  • Extrusion Industries
  • P/M Part Manufacturing
  • Automobile Parts
  • Aircraft Parts
  • Turbines/Power Plants
  • Structures

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)

MPI is a method of locating surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferrous (ferromagnetic) materials. Ferromagnetic materials include most of iron, nickel and cobalt alloys. Many of the preparation for hardening steels such as 12-4 ph, 17-7 ph, stainless steels are magnetic after ageing. Detectable Discontinuities (Flaws)
The method can be employed for:

  • Surface Discontinuities
  • Subsurface Discontinuities
  • Detecting Discontinuities in Weldments
  • Discontinuities in Casting, Forgings, Extrusions Deep–Drawn Parts
  • Oil Well Tubing
  • Crane Hooks
  • Drive Pinion Shafts
  • Disk or Gear Shafts
  • Weldments
  • Billets, Blooms, etc.

Types of Defects

  • Cracks
  • Seams
  • Laps
  • Scabs
  • Porosity In
  • Fatigue Test Monitoring
  • Brazed Honeycomb Panels
  • Plastic Deformation
  • Heat Affected Zones

Ultrasonic Inspection (UI/UT)

Ultrasonic inspection is a non-destructive method in which beam of high-frequency sound waves. are introduced into materials for detection of internal and subsurface flows in materials. The sound waves travel through the material with some attenuation loss of energy at discontinuities< and are reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is displayed and then analyzed to define the presence and location of flaws or discontinuities.


Some of the major types of parts ultrasonically inspected for the presence of flaws are:

  • Aircraft Parts
  • Automotive Parts
  • Bonded Joints
  • Coating Thickness Measurements
  • Corrosion Monitoring
  • Crack Monitoring
  • Extrusion Parts
  • Jet Equipment
  • Machinery Materials
  • Microstructure
  • Mill Components
  • Pipelines
  • Power Equipment
  • Railroad Parts
  • Spot Welds
  • Steel Bars & Pipes
  • Steel Rails
  • Stress Measurements
  • Tubular Parts